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practice eGovernment Factsheet - Sweden - National Infrastructure

eGovernment Factsheet - Sweden - National Infrastructure

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Posting Date
18 December 2006
Last Edited Date
21 March 2012
Country
Sweden

Main eGovernment infrastructure components

Last updated: January 2012

Portals

'sweden.gov.se' portal

This portal serves as the English-language website of the Swedish Government and the Government Offices. It is designed to provide documents and records, information about current government bills, initiatives and ministerial activities, and accounts of how the decision-making process works in Sweden.

The website has three main sections:

  • The Government and the Government Offices: The section offers up-to-date information listed according to each ministry, minister and subject area.
  • Publications: This section contains all information material and other publications issued in English or other foreign languages (along with an ordering facility).
  • How Sweden is governed: This section places the work of the Government and the Government Offices in context. Decision-making processes, the EU and other matters are described and exemplified.
verksamt.se’ portal: the Swedish Business Link to Government

The 'verksamt.se' portal provides a comprehensive single-point for entrepreneurs and enterprises to access relevant and official eServices and information from three public authorities: the Swedish Companies Registration Office (Bolagsverket); the Swedish Tax Agency (Skatteverket); and the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth (Tillväxtverket).

This initiative develops, improves, joins and replaces two existing eServices; the online guidance for those willing to start and/or run a business (Företagarguiden) and the company registration service (Foretagsregistrering). 'Verksamt.se' joins up the guidance and information parts with both the company registration and company tax filing eServices. It furthermore introduces a new tool to create a business plan, where information can be transferred and re-used in other eServices.

'sweden.se' portal

This is the official gateway to Sweden. Through this portal all interested parties can gather information on working and starting a business in Sweden. The service also provides the ability to download forms and applications.

'openaid.se' portal

The portal 'openaid.se' has been created by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to provide information on the aid Sweden gives to other countries.The portal will enable organisations, journalists and the public to trace the entire process of giving aid from the preparation of aid efforts through decisions and reports to the evaluation of the tasks undertaken. The immediate goal is to increase transparency on aid, as a way of boosting the fight against poverty. Information from as far back as 1975 is available, even though it becomes more detailed and complete in more recent years.

Networks

Swedish Government Secure Intranet (SGSI)

SGSI is an intranet service for secure communication within the country between Swedish Government agencies and among EU Member States and EU bodies via TESTA, the European Community's own private IP-based network for secure information exchange among the European Public Administrations. SGSI is an IP service, a virtual private network which has no direct connection with the open Internet.

According to the security target in force, the SGSI may be used by Government agencies which have been accredited. Accreditation implies that case sensitive information, which has been classified according to the EU Council’s security regulations as ‘Restreint UE’, can be transferred to TESTA and to connected agencies. SGSI has a wider function than that of TESTA-traffic channel, as it allows for communication between the police and judicial agencies. The network is also expected to become increasingly important for national crisis communication among Swedish Government agencies.

Public Telecom Network

Telecom terminals are a type of telecommunication equipment that is connected to the public telecom network. This equipment includes telephones, mobile phones, answering machines, number display units, fax machines and modems. Thanks to all this equipment, the public telecom network becomes faster, more efficient and much more secure for both citizens and public services. The use of those terminals is promoted in compliance with the European Community Directive, the Radio and Teleterminal Equipment Directive (R&TTE-directive-1999/5/EC), which is implemented in Sweden by national regulations.

eIdentification/eAuthentication

‘Official’ electronic ID card

On 1 October 2005, the Swedish Government introduced the ‘official’ electronic ID card containing biometric data. The new ‘national identity card’ (nationellt identitetskort) is not compulsory and does not replace previous paper ID cards. It can be used as a proof of identity and citizenship and as a valid travel document within the Schengen area. It complies with ICAO standards for biometric travel documents; it is issued by the passport offices and manufactured by the same supplier as the biometric passport. In addition to the contactless chip containing a digital picture of the holder, it also has a traditional chip which may be used to securely access eGovernment services in the future.

eLegitimation-Non-official eID cards and software-based eIDs

Swedish citizens have been using non-official electronic ID cards issued by the Swedish Post and software-based electronic IDs like the BankID (developed by the largest Swedish banks) and Steria eID to access certain eGovernment services. Any physical person with a Swedish personal identity number (a unique identification number for Swedish citizens) can obtain an eID. This number appears on the eID and its microchip.

Legal entities can also use an eID. In this case, two types of certificates come into question, namely the server and stamping certificates, for authentication and signing respectively. The certificates contain the name of the organisation and the organisational number and may also contain a URL. The contact person ordering organisational certificates must have an authorisation for this purpose from a person authorised to sign on behalf of his/her organisation.

Furthermore, 'Steria' has introduced a new type of eIDs in Sweden; the organisational certificates for personal use. This type of certificate contains the organisational number, the name of the organisation, as well as the name and the role of the person. It is worth noting that none of the organisational eIDs contain the personal identity number which is considered to be sensitive information.

As the eIDs are issued by different suppliers, the authority which provides eServices must be able to authenticate users, verify eSignatures and apply for revocation checks in different ways and towards different eID-suppliers.

Biometric passports

In October 2005, Sweden became the second European country to start issuing biometric passports compliant with the standards recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

The ePassport has an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) microchip embedded in its polycarbonate data page containing a digital photo and personal information of the holder.

eProcurement

eProcurement Virtual System

According to the report 'Digitising Public Services in Europe: Putting ambition into action - 9th Benchmark Measurement', produced for the European Commission in December 2010, Sweden set an eProcurement virtual system with a non mandatory platform where eProcurement services are provided by subcontractors, specialised in the different steps of the electronic procurement process. The central eProcurement authorities’ role consists on monitoring the supplied services and complying with standards. In general, the Swedish Government has not implemented a central electronic public procurement portal, as this is deliberately left up to private operators. Several privately owned and operated portals exist instead, some of which concentrate on public procurement (e.g. Opic and Visma).

Public Procurement information portal

This portal maintained by the National Procurement Services, serves as an information database on the different framework agreements which were procured centrally by National Procurement Services. The portal is available to national authorities, Government agencies, regions and municipalities.

An authority can thus use the information portal to locate the necessary information on a framework agreement, whereas the procurement process is further handled by the authority itself, either by electronic, or traditional means.

eInvoicing Standard

The Swedish National Financial Management Authority leads the work on the procurement of an eInvoicing infrastructure, and develops support for agencies.

The Swedish Government announced in December 2006 that as from July 2008, all public agencies shall process all incoming and outgoing invoices electronically.

A standard for electronic invoicing in the public sector has been suggested and, on 12 January 2007, regulations were issued, requiring Swedish Government agencies to comply with the Single Face to Industry (SFTI) basic invoice specification in their processing of electronic invoices. These regulations also state that agencies shall choose a method of transport for transferring electronic invoices in an appropriate manner.

Knowledge Management

The Platform for Co-operative Use

There is currently no central knowledge management infrastructure in Sweden.

However, local authorities have their own ‘Platform for Co-operative Use’ whose purpose is to exchange best practice and speed up the development of eGovernment in the municipalities. 30 municipalities have been collaborating on 5 pilot projects developed to identify, design and introduce common systems architecture, technical platforms and basic functions for eServices in the municipalities.

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