Main eGovernment infrastructure components
Last updated: January 2012
First launched in January 2007, www.borger.dk is a single Internet entry point to the public sector’s information and eServices to citizens, regardless of the origin of the public authority. The portal is jointly operated and funded by national, regional and local authorities. The portal provides general, location specific (e.g. regional or municipality specific) and personal information, data and eServices for citizens. It features a range of ‘self-service’ sections, thus allowing citizens to manage their communications with the public sector effectively and efficiently. The target is for all public sector bodies to integrate their digital information and services for citizens into the portal. In May 2012, a new version is launched. In the second half of 2012 a full mobile platform for citizens is introduced. The portal is a key focal point of the national and municipality digitisation strategies in 2011-2015, including the goal of rendering 80 % of all citizen-public sector communication digital by 2015.
An updated version of ’borger.dk’ went live in October 2008, containing the first version of the 'My Page' section, which gives a personal overview of one’s relation to the public authorities. In that version, citizens can find personal information concerning taxes, health care, housing and finance. A second and more comprehensive version of 'My Page' was launched in 2010 in cooperation with the municipalities of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Aarhus, Aalborg and Næstved (i.e. 5 % of municipalities representing approx. 24 % of the population) and in March 2012 more than 50 % of municipalities (representing more than 60 % of the population) have signed up for a basic start-pack of personalised service through Local Government Denmark. In addition, a single sign-on solution allows citizens to receive and access information and services from several agencies, without having to log on several times. The portal currently contains more than 600 self-service solutions, and accommodates more than 1.2 million user-sessions per month (in a population of 5.5 million people).
An updated version of the portal information architecture, graphic design and content management system is scheduled to be launched in May 2012. The re-launched version will allow for easier user-interphases, increased personalisation of content, increased syndication of 'borger.dk' content and flexibility for authorities adding location specific content to the portal, or moving citizen-oriented content onto the portal thereby replacing their websites.
This business portal is the common public eService channel for businesses, allowing them to handle their reporting obligations towards the public sector while providing relevant information on public services. The overall objective of 'Virk.dk' is to relieve Danish businesses from administrative burdens and to provide a single entrance to the public sector. 'Virk.dk' delivers a number of fully digital solutions for the benefit of businesses and the administration, regardless of the competent administrative body. The portal contains more than 200 eForms.
'Virk.dk' offers a number of transverse workflows which are customised in a way that the flow automatically finds the forms that are relevant to each individual user. A noteworthy aspect is the company start up workflow: Users are automatically presented with forms and queries concerning their business interest, thus avoiding irrelevant forms.
The portal contains articles, step-by-step guides, tools and documents designed to make it easier and more secure for users to sell or buy homes. It also provides an overview of buying and selling processes and details of the people that use them. It thus constitutes an insight into housing transaction processes designed to equip the home owner for the cooperation with professional advisers. Several tools and documents enable home owners to carry out parts of a housing transaction themselves, but also constitute a way of access to the large national databases containing data about buildings.
The website 'IT-formidler.dk' has been created to support the many initiatives around the country aimed at improving Danish IT skills. This web site primarily aims at giving the opportunity to every teacher in the country to share experiences, produce educational materials and retrieve teaching modules. The site was launched in March 2009 as part of the project "Laer mere" (Learn more). The website and network is part of the programme designed to assist those Danes who will not be able to serve themselves online as the eGovernment Strategy 2012-2015 has rendered the digital communication mandatory.
There is currently no Government-wide data network in Denmark.
Since 1 July 2010, 'NemID', the new digital signature, provides easy and safe access to a wide range of public and private self-service solutions on the web, including eBanking, real estate, insurance and pension funds services. With this digital signature, citizens use the same user ID and the same password for online banking, government websites and a wide range of private services online. 'NemID' is the result of the collaboration between the state, municipalities and regions, the financial sector and a private contractor. More than 70 % of the Danish population, at the age of 15 and on, is using 'NemID'. A special solution was also developed for the blind and partially sighted people in cooperation with the Danish Association of the Blind.
The development of an efficient and secure infrastructure for digital signatures, which continuously supports the demands of a safe and leading knowledge society in Denmark, is the responsibility of the Centre for Digital Signatures. The Centre is an independent power unit liable to ensure an efficient and secure digital signature infrastructure. A historic overview of the evolution of eSignature in Denmark may be viewed here.
'NemLog-in' is a login and single sign-on solution established under the auspices of the common public user management, to make the digital Denmark safer and provide better services for citizens. By using this self-service solution, Danish citizens get automatically single-signed on, even for other solutions that they happen to be connected. Log-in takes place with either Digital Signature or 'NemID', which is a key to public self-service online, while 'NemLog-in' acts as a keyhole.
The Danish National Police started issuing electronic passports in October 2006. These new, secure ePassports feature a polycarbonate data page containing a contact-less microprocessor chip running a highly secure operating system. The chip not only features the information identity already laser-engraved on the first page, but also contains the passport holder's digitised photograph.
The Procurement portal offers public and private providers guidance on the knowledge and tools for the provision of tendering services. The purpose of the portal is to facilitate cooperation between enterprises and the public as a means to promote public services efficiently.
Furthermore, some regional and local authorities make use of private marketplaces. The State-owned company National Procurement Ltd. (SKI) has set up simpler eTendering solutions systems (NetIndkøb & Netkatalog).
Denmark is an active member of the ‘Northern European Subset’ (NES) – an initiative of a group of countries comprising Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Finland, with the collaboration of the United Kingdom – with the aim to facilitate the interoperability and establishment of a common platform for eProcurement among its members. In January 2007, the participating countries agreed on a common implementation of the eProcurement standard UBL 2.0.
'Digitalisér.dk' is the central repository of information on data interchange standards for the public and private sectors and a collaboration tool for the development of information society in Denmark. Launched by the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation in October 2008, as a successor to the Infostructurebase (ISB), it is a key strategic element in the country’s eGovernment architecture. Its main purpose is to support the exchange and reuse of data related to public and private service delivery, including cooperation, business reengineering and alignment of related services. An important part of the content is the standards approved by the Danish eGovernment IT-architecture and XML committees.
'Digitalisér.dk' also provides an uncomplicated basis for debating common public digitisation by using intuitive web-based interaction rather than formal processes. There is only one search field for standards, IT architectural documents, services and participating organisations, since business requirements form the basis for 'Digitalisér.dk'.
Digital post (e-boks) is a service that enables citizens to access their electronic mail from both private companies and public authorities in a single digital mailbox on borger.dk and virk.dk. Thanks to the electronic mail service, it is easy and safe to use and allow for a two-way electronic communication between citizen, business and public authorities. In addition to sending and receiving electronic posts, the digital post acts as an electronic storage.
The digital post is a key element in the eGovernment Strategy 2011-2015. In 2011, more than 180 million letters were send to citizens and businesses via digital post.
'NemHandel' is a technology that allows Danish businesses to send standardised electronic invoices directly from their PCs via the Internet, in a secure and reliable manner. 'NemHandel' consists of three elements:
All citizens and businesses in Denmark are required to have a ‘NemKonto’ (Easy Account), namely a normal bank account to which all payments from public institutions are transferred via the Easy Account System (EAS). The EAS is a database with account numbers and social security or company numbers. When a public institution makes a payment to a citizen or company, the payment is made to a social security or company number. It then goes from the institution’s payment system to the EAS, which attaches an account number, and then to the institutions bank and further on to the citizen/company’s bank account. This way, all public payments are made electronically to bank accounts – no checks and cash payments are needed.
It is possible to designate, change or delete an Easy Account for citizens and public institutions online. Staff in public institutions can log with the correct user profile, onto the website and stop payments, or search for payments that their institution has made. Access is obtained by logging on to the website using the OCES signature.